Provide an operational definition of intelligence. What is the role of operational definitions within quantitative research? What are the strengths and weaknesses of operational definitions within psychology research?
In some quantitative studies the terms “external validity” and “generalizability” are portrayed as synonymous. In contrast, Reichardt (2011) makes the claim that external validity and generalizability should be considered distinct concepts. What is external validity? What are the merits of distinguishing between external validity and generalizability of quantitative results?
1. Criticisms of and an Alternative to the Shadish, Cook, and Campbell Validity Typology
Reichardt, C. S. (2011). Criticisms of and an alternative to the Shadish, Cook, and Campbell validity typology. New Directions for Evaluation, (130), 43-53. DOI:10.1002/ev.364
2. Preliminary Concepts in Inference
McGrath, R. E. (2011). Preliminary concepts in inference. In Quantitative models in psychology (pp. 13-33). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. DOI:10.1037/12316-001
3. Reflections on the Status and Direction of Psychology: An External Historical Perspective
Giorgi, A. (2013). Reflections on the status and direction of psychology: An external historical perspective. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, 44(2), 244-261. DOI:10.1163/15691624-12341257
4. Threats to the Validity of Research
Parker, R. M. (1993). Threats to the validity of the research. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 36(3), 130-138.